Home Field and Swamp: Animals and Their Habitats

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Archived-by-Date Pages

Wildflowers (Magnoliophyta division, Tracheobionta subkingdom, Plantae kingdom)

See also A Virtual Wildflower Garden across Time to identify wildflowers by color and when they appear.

     

All plant species represented on this page have demonstrated ability to survive without human cultivation in the general area where they appeared.  Some of these species were originally introduced from other parts of the world, however.   North Carolina state-listed species shown below include the Prairie Wild Indigo (Baptisia australis), which is "threatened;" the Smooth Coneflower (Echinacea laevigata), which is "special concern" and "endangered" and the Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), which is "special concern." 

The plants on this page are ordered by their family classification within their superorder for simplicity.  These Latin names were checked against the Integrated Taxonomic Information System for validity.  Identification errors are possible.   No information on this page should be interpreted as medical advice or as authoritative information relevant to herbal medicine, nor should any plants represented on it be assumed to be edible.  

To search for an item on this page on a desktop computer, enter CTRL+F.   On an iPhone, follow these directions: https://www.wirefly.com/guides/how-to-search-for-text-on-webpage-iphone-ctrl-f

Durham, NC  is in USDA Hardiness Zone 7 although it might be changed to Zone 8.  The first hard freeze of the winter of 2009 was on the night of December 5 and the first snow on December 18.

Monocotyledons (Lilianae superorder)

Water-plantain (Alismataceae) family, Lilianae superorder

   
Sagittaria genus, Carolina Beach, New Hanover County, NC, 8/29/12    

Amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) family, Lilianae superorder

   
Jersey Lily (Amaryllis belladonna), Gulfport, Harrison County, MS, 10/20/13 Fragrant False Garlic (Nothoscordum borbonicum), Santee, Orangeburg County, SC, 4/29/11.  This is an introduced species. Crowpoison (Nothoscordum bivalve), Ocracoke, Hyde County, NC, 4/15/19 Nodding Wild Onion (Allium cernuum), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 7/17/11    

 

Garlic Chives (Allium tuberosus), Durham, NC, 9/2/09.  An introduced species. Meadow Garlic (Allium canadense), Ocracoke Island, Hyde County, NC, 4/21/16 Meadow Garlic (Allium canadense), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 5/20/09 Meadow Garlic (Allium canadense), Durham, NC, 6/6/09  Meadow Garlic (Allium canadense), Durham, NC,  6/6/09

 

Possibly Cultivated Garlic (Alllium sativum), Durham, NC, 4/30/09 Wild Garlic or Field Garlic (Allium vineale), Occoneechee Mountain Natural Area, Orange County, NC, 6/13/09.  An introduced species. Wild Garlic or Field Garlic (Allium vineale), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 5/30/09.  Sometimes this species produces little bulbs instead of flowers; this is happening here. Wild Garlic or Field Garlic (Allium vineale), Durham, NC, 5/23/09

Arum (Araceae) family, Liliane superorder

 
Jack-in-the-Pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum), Lake Crabtree County Park, Wake County, NC, 4/16/09 Jack-in-the-Pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 5/21/06 Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum), Montreat, Buncombe County, NC, 4/28/14 Jack-in-the-Pulpit, with green seedheads, NC Botanical Garden, 7/17/09.  Two plants are seen here. Jack-in-the-Pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum) seedhead, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 9/2/04.  The stalk typically breaks, letting the fruits reach the ground. Jack-in-the-Pulpit, with red seedheads, Durham, NC, 9/16/09  

         
Calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), Larkspur, Marin County, CA, 6/1/19 Green Dragon (Arisaema dracontium), Asheville, Buncombe County, NC, 5/1/12.  Seen in a private garden.          

Asparagus (Asparagaceae) family, Lilianae superorder

Ithuriel's Spear (Triteleia laxa), Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, CA, 5/31/19 Grape Hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 3/31/09

Canna (Cannaceae) family, Lilianae superorder

         
Wild Canna Lily or Indian Shot (Canna X generalis), American Tobacco Trail (downtown), Durham, NC, 10/8/19          

Colchicaceae family, Lilianae superorder

Perfoliate Bellwort (Uvularia perfoliata), Mountain-to-Sea Trail, Buncombe County, NC  4/30/12

Dayflower (Commelinaceae) family, Liliane superorder

Prairie Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis), Duke Gardens, Durham, NC, 4/6/09.  Cultivated plant. Virginia Spiderwort (Tradescantia virginiana), Moses Cone Memorial Park, Watauga County, NC, 6/18/19 Asiatic Dayflower (Commelina communis), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 8/18/11 Virginia Dayflower (Commelina virginica), Third Fork Trail, Durham, NC, 9/15/11.  The native dayflower species with by far the biggest flowers. Whitemouth Dayflowers (Commelina erecta), Brackenridge Park, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX, 5/28/10.  An introduced species. Carolina Dayflower (Commelina caroliniana), Durham, NC, 9/20/09.  This is actually an introduced species. Marsh Dewflower or Asian Spiderwort (Murdannia keisak), a member of the Commelinaceae family.  Very common in rainy weather. Marsh Dewflowers (Murdannia keisak), seen in swampy areas.  Durham, NC, 9/15/11.  An introduced plant, it is listed as a "noxious weed" in Washington state.

Sedge (Cyperaceae) family, Lilianae superorder

 
Straw-colored Flatsedge (Cyperus strigosus), Durham, NC, 9/9/19.  This used to be known as "False Nutsedge." Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus), Durham, NC, 9/9/19 White-bracted Sedge or Whitetop Sedge or Sandswamp Whitetop (Rhynchospora latifolia), Ocracoke, Hyde County, NC, 5/11/09 Narrowleaf Whitetop Sedge (Rhynchospora colorata), Ft. Fisher Recreational Area, New Hanover County, NC, 8/5/09 Frank's Sedge (Carex frankii), Durham, NC, 7/4/19.  Tiny white flowers appear at the ends of the spikes. False Nutsedge (Cyperus strigosus), among Valley Redstem, on the far east end of the inlet of Jordan Lake, Chatham County, NC, 10/28/17 Small part of the dry lake bed, with small plants, mostly False Nutsedge (Cyperus strigosus), on the inlet of Jordan Lake, Chatham County, NC, 10/28/17  

Rush (Juncaceae) family, Liliane superorder

         
Common Rush (Juncus effusus), Durham, NC, 5/10/19          

Arrowroot (Marantaceae) family, Lilianae superorder

         
Powdered Alligator Flag (Thalia dealbata), Sandy Creek Park, Durham, NC, 9/18/19          

Yellow-eyed Grass (Xyridaceae) family, Liliane superorder

     
Yellow-eyed Grass flower (Xyris fimbriata), Carolina Beach State Park, New Hanover County, NC, 8/4/09 Yellow-eyed Grass (Xyris fimbriata), Carolina Beach State Park, New Hanover County, NC, 8/4/09      

Hypoxidaceae family, Lilianae superorder

         
Common Goldstar (Hypoxis hirsuta), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 5/30/09 Common Goldstar (Hypoxis hirsuta), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 4/17/12.  Every spring at least one plant shows up at this particular site, but no others.          

Iris (Iridaceae) family, Lilianae superorder

 
Eastern Blue-eyed Grass (Sisyrichium atlanticum), Ocracoke, Hyde County, NC, 5/13/09 White Blue-eyed Grass (Sisyrinchium albidum), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 5/2/10 Blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium angustifolium), Durham, NC, 5/3/18 Western Blue-eyed Grass (Sisyrinchium bellum), Indian Valley, Novato, Marin County, CA  4/30/17


 
Dwarf Violet Iris (Iris verna), Weymouth Woods-Sandhills Nature Preserve, Moore County, NC, 4/6/18 Dwarf Crested Iris (Iris cristata), Tanawha Trail (Mileposts 299-300), NC, 5/6/11 Southern Blue Flag (Iris virginica), Durham, NC, 5/6/18 Flowers of the same Southern Blue Flag Iris (Iris virginica), Durham, NC, 5/9/19 Southern Blue Flag Iris (Iris virginica), Durham, NC, 5/1/19  

Lily (Liliaceae) family, Lilianae superorder

 
Little Sweet Betsy (Trillium cuneatum), Duke Gardens, Durham County, NC, 3/28/08. White Trillium (Trillium grandiflorum), Glassmine Gap, Macon County, NC, 5/28/13 Sweet Wakerobin (Trillium vaseyi), Duke Gardens, Durham, NC, 4/6/09 Vasey's Trillium or Sweet Wakerobin (Trillium vaseyi), Glassmine Gap, Macon County, NC, 5/28/13 Bashful Wake Robin (Trillium catesbaei).  North Carolina Botanical Garden, 4/18/09. Painted Trillium (Trillium undulatum).  Tanawha Trail (Mileposts 299-300), NC, 5/6/11 Red Trillium (Trillium erectum).  Tanawha Trail (Mileposts 299-300), NC, 5/6/11  

 

 
Trout Lily (Erythonium americanum), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 3/13/08.  These ephemera show up in early spring and die back to the ground when new leaves on the trees cut off the sunlight to the understory.  They are common in wooded areas around here. White Trout Lily (Erythronium albidum), with flower fly.  Might be a hybrid of this species with the E. americanum. Durham, NC, 3/22/19 Atamasco Lily (Zethyranthes atamasco), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 4/20/07 Canadian Mayflower (Maiathemum canadense).  Tanawha Trail (Mileposts 299-300), NC, 5/6/11 Lily-of-the-Valley (Convallaria ruscaceae), Duke Gardens, Durham, NC, 4/6/09.  In the Nolinoideae subfamily. Lily-of-the-Valley (Convallaria ruscaceae), Old Salem, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, NC, 4/27/19.  In the Nolinoideae subfamily.  

 

Turk's Cap Lily (Lilium superbum), Daniel Boone Gardens, Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/5/08 Gray's Lily flower (Lilium grayi), Tanawha Trail, Watauga County, NC, 6/16/15 Orange Daylilies or Tiger Daylilies (Hemerocallis fulva), near Old Salem, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, NC, 6/7/09.  These were just a few of the many daylilies of this species growing wild in this area. Orange Daylily or Tiger Daylily (Hemerocallis fulva), near Old Salem, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, NC, 6/7/09

 

         
Indian Cucumber-Root (Medeola virginiana) fruit and bud, Raven Cliffs Trail, Chattahoochee National Forest, GA, 5/29/13 Indian Cucumber-Root blooms (Medeola virginiana), Linn Cove Visitor Center nature trail, Avery County, NC, 6/16/19 Indian Cucumber-Root (Medeola virginiana) flowe, War Spur Loop, Giles County, VA, 6/15/11 Fresh Indian Cucumber- Root flower (Medeola virginiana), Glassmine Gap, Macon County, NC, 5/28/13 Yellow Mandarin (Prosartes lanuginosa), Montreat, Buncombe County, NC, 4/29/14          

 

 
Star-of-Bethlehem (Ornithogalum umbellatum), Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, NC, 4/27/19 Butterfly Mariposa Lily (Calochortus venustus), Mt. Diablo State Park, Clayton, Contra Costa County, CA  5/8/15 Another Butterfly Mariposa Lily (Calochortus venustus), Mt. Diablo State Park, Clayton, Contra Costa County, CA  5/8/15 Speckled Wood Lily (Clintonia umbellata), Glassmine Gap, Macon County, NC, 5/28/13  

Bunchflower (Melanthiaceae) family, no subclass

         
Green False Hellebore (Veratrum viride), Linn Cove Visitor Center nature trail, Avery County, NC, 6/16/19 Fly Poison (Amianthium muscitoxicum), Tanawha Trail, Milepost 304, Avery County, NC, 6/16/19 Fly Poison (Amianthium muscitoxicum), Tanawha Trail, Milepost 304, Avery County, NC  6/27/14          

Orchid (Orchidaceae) family, Lilianae superorder

         
Orange-fringed Orchid (Platanthera ciliaris), Bear Den Campground, Mitchell County, NC, 8/19/14          

         
Tuberous Grasspink (Calopogon tuberosus), Coastal Plain Habitat Garden, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 6/13/18          

 

 
Putty Root (Aplectrum hyemale) winter leaf, 2/21/09, Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC.   The rather large leaf appears in fall and winter (but never the same time as the inflorescence), even as far north as Wisconsin, according to the University of Wisconsin at Madison Botany Department.    ID thanks to Will Cook. Putty Root orchid flowers, Swannanoa River Road, Warren Wilson College, Asheville, NC, 5/3/12.  The winter leaf was still here, all brown.  

Pink Lady's Slipper (Cypripedium acaule), Nantahala National Forest, 5/27/13 Pink Lady's Slipper (Cypripedium  acaule), Falling Creek Camp, Tuxedo, Henderson County, NC, 5/23/03      

Crane Fly Orchid (Tipularia discolor), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 3/31/09. As with the Putty Root, the leaf and inflorescence are never seen together. Crane Fly Orchid flowers, Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 7/30/09 Crane Fly Orchid flowers (closeup of flowers on the left)

         
Rattlesnake Plantain (Goodyera pubescens), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 7/30/09 Budding Rattlesnake Plantain (Goodyera pubescens).  Thumbnail went sideways through a quirk in the web programming software.  Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 7/2/11          

Slender Ladies' Tresses (Spiranthes lacera), Ocracoke, Hyde County, NC, 5/27/17 Spring Ladies' Tresses (Spiranthes vernalis), Ocracoke, Hyde County, NC, 5/27/17 Nodding Ladies' Tresses (Spiranthes cernua), Coastal Plain Habitat Garden, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 10/5/19

Grass (Poaceae) family, Liliane superorder

Grass flowers have a unique structure: spikelets are the basic inflorescence; the anthers (the male parts) are x-shaped and the styles (the female parts) are long and fuzzy.

 
Eastern Gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides), 7/14/13 Pink Muhly Grass (Muhlenbergia capillaris), Durham, NC, 10/12/12 Grass flowers, American Tobacco Trail (miles 4-6), Durham, NC, 4/13/09 Grass flowers. Durham, NC, 6/20/09  

Purple Lovegrass (Eragrostis spectabilis), with stilt bug on lower right, Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 6/25/09 Redtop (Tridens flavus), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 6/29/09 Little Bluestem (Andropogon scoparius), Weymouth Woods-Sandhills Nature Preserve, Moore County, NC, 11/2/13

 

Spikelets of Common Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis); the anthers and styles are black. Durham, NC, 7/15/09 Sandspur flowers (Cenchrus echinatus), Ft. Fisher State Recreation Area, New Hanover County, NC, 11/11/12

 

Pontederiaceae family, Lilianae superorder

     
Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata), Durham, NC, 6/30/16 Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata), Duke Gardens, Durham, NC, 6/12/09 Common Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) flower, Myakka River State Park, Sarasota County, FL, 12/3/14      

Dicotyledons (all other superorders)

Asteranae superorder

Acanthaceae family, Asteranae superorder

Carolina Wild Petunia (Ruellia carolinensis), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 7/15/11 Carolina Wild Petunia (Ruellia carolinensis), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 6/24/09 Carolina Wild Petunia (Ruellia carolinensis), NC Zoo, Asheboro, NC, 6/21/09 American Water Willow (Justicia americana) flowers, with sweat bee inside one.  On Eno River bank.  West Point on the Eno, Durham, NC, 7/4/09 American Water Willow (Justicia americana).  Same plant as on left.

Dogbane (Apocynaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

     
Little Periwinkle (Vinca minor), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 3/19/09 Big Periwinkle (Vinca major), American Tobacco Trail (miles 4-6), Durham, NC, 4/13/09 Maroon Carolina Milkvine (Matelea carolinensis), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 5/15/19 Climbing Dogbane (Thyrsanthella difformis or Trachelospermum difforme: apparently hotly debated: the USDA favors the latter while the ITIS favors the former), Durham, NC, 5/23/19 Climbing Dogbane (Thyrsanthella difformis or Trachelospermum difforme: apparently hotly debated: the USDA favors the latter while the ITIS favors the former), Durham, NC, 5/23/19 Indian Hemp (Apocynum cannabinum), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 5/20/09 Indian Hemp (Apocynum cannabinum), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 6/13/09      

Milkweed (Asclepiadaceae family), Asteranae superorder

   
Butterflyweed (Asclepias tuberosa), Duke Gardens, Durham, NC, 6/13/09 Common Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), Peaks of Otter Recreational Area, Bedford County, VA, 7/9/09 Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata) seed pods with Large Milkweed Bugs on them, Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 9/13/09 Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata), Flat River Impoundment, Durham, NC 8/15/10 Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 6/17/19 Few-flower Milkweed (Asclepias lanceolata), with Monarch Butterfly, Marie G. Selby Botanical Garden, Sarasota, FL, 2/28/18 Few-flower Milkweed (Asclepias lanceolata), Shipley Trail at Bailey Homestead, Fort Myers, Lee County, FL, 2/22/19    

Aster (Asteraceae) family, Asteranae superorder

   
Common Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), with Honey Bee, Durham, NC, 8/1/08.  Photo by Karl D. Gottschalk. Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), Raulston Arboretum, Raleigh, NC, 5/22/09 Smooth Coneflower (Echinacea laevigata), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 6/4/06. This is an officially endangered species according to the US Fish & Wildlife Service and North Carolina Ecological Services according to their Smooth Coneflower Page. Salt-marsh Fleabane (Pluchea odorata), Goose Creek State Park, Washington County, NC, 9/21/08.  Also seen in rural Chatham County, NC.    

 

Bearded Beggarticks (Bidens aristosa), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 10/5/08 Bearded Beggarticks (Bidens aristosa), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/11/19 Devil's Beggartick (Bidens frondosa), Durham, NC, 9/9/19 Spanish Needles (Bidens bipinnata) seedhead, Durham, NC, 11/20/12

Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), Durham, NC, 3/27/09 Green-and-gold (Chrysogonum virginianum), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 4/10/09 A kind of purple aster, perhaps the Late Purple Aster of the North Carolina mountains, 10/16/08 Oxeye Daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare), Haw River State Park, 5/31/08, with Zebra Longhorn Beetle

 

Cat's Ear (Hypochaeris radicata), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 6/29/09 Dwarf Dandelion (Krigia genus), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 4/12/09 False Dandelion (Pyrrhopappus carolinianus) flower and seedhead, Durham, NC, 7/4/19 False Dandelion (Pyrrhopappus carolinianus) seedhead, Durham, NC, 7/14/19 False Dandelion (Pyrrhopappus carolinianus), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 7/16/11 Allegheny Hawkweed (Hieracium paniculatum), Durham, NC, 4/22/19

 

 
Firewheel or Indian Blanket (Gaillardia pulchella),Ocracoke, Hyde County, NC, 5/11/09.  Although it is more commonly called "Firewheel" in North Carolina, it is called "Indian Blanket" in warmer climates, e.g., southern Texas, where it is seen in large clusters. An unusual Firewheel (Gaillardia pulchella), Ft. Fisher State Recreation Area, New Hanover County, NC, 12/3/12 Firewheel (Gaillardia pulchella) with flowerlike petals, Kill Devil Hills, Dare County, NC, 6/27/13 Red Firewheel (Gaillardia pulchella), Kill Devil Hills, Dare County, NC, 6/27/13 Yellow Firewheel (Gaillardia pulchella), Kill Devil Hills, Dare County, NC, 6/27/13 Pink Firewheel (Gaillardia pulchella), Kill Devil Hills, Dare County, NC, 6/27/13  

 

 
Spoonleaf Purple Everlasting (Gamochaeta purpurea), Lake Crabtree County Park, Wake County, NC, 4/16/09 Spoonleaf Purple Everlasting (Gamochaeta purpurea), Durham, NC, 5/22/19 Stokes Aster (Stokesia laevis), Duke Gardens, Durham, NC, 6/13/09 Centaurea genus maybe, NC Zoo, Asheboro, NC, 6/21/09 Common Yarrow (Achillea millefolium), NC Zoo, Asheboro, NC, 6/21/09 Anomalousy pink Yarrow (Achillea millefolium), Moses Cone Memorial Park, Watauga County, NC, 6/18/19  

 

 
Whorled Tickseed (Coreopsis verticillata), Durham, NC, 6/27/09 Lanceleaf Tickseed (Coreopsis lanceolata), Durham, NC, 5/22/19 Leavenworth's Tickseed (Coreopsis leavenworthii), Fort Myers, Lee County, FL, 2/21/19 Forest Sunflower (Helianthus decapetalus), Moses Cone Memorial Park, Watauga County, NC, 8/14/19 Small-headed Sunflower (Helianthus microcephalus), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/12/19 Golden Tickseed (Coreopsis tinctoria), Durham, NC, 6/7/14 Golden Tickseed (Coreopsis tinctoria), Durham, NC, 6/7/18

 

Chicory (Cichorium intybus), seen in large groups along the sides of highways in the Natural Bridge area and nearby parts of Virginia, 7/8/09 Chicory (Cichorium intybus), including one albino (on Blowing Rock Rd. corner), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 6/30/10 Small's Ragwort (Packera anonyma), Durham, NC, 5/20/09

 
Elmleaf Goldenrod (Solidago ulmifolia), only about a foot high. Durham, NC, 9/21/19 Maybe Blue-stemmed Goldenrod (Solidago caesia), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 10/6/19 Blue-stemmed Goldenrod (Solidago caesia), Linn Cove Visitor Center area, Avery County, NC, 8/12/19

Anise-colored Goldenrod (Solidago odora), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 10/5/19

 

Eastern Gray Goldenrod (Solidago nemoralis), with weevil and tumbling flower beetle, NC Botanical Garden, 7/17/09 More Eastern Gray Goldenrod (Solidago nemoralis), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 10/5/19 Eastern Gray Goldenrod (Solidago nemoralis), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 10/5/19  

         
Mountain Decumbent Goldenrod (Solidago curtisii), Linn Cove Visitor Center area, Avery County, NC, 8/12/19 Rough goldenrod leaf Smooth goldenrod leaf          

 
  New York Ironweed (Vernonia novaboracensis) , Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 7/30/09 New York Ironweed (Vernonia novaboracensis), Durham, NC, 7/14/19 New York Ironweed (Vernonia novaboracensis) flowers, Durham, NC, 8/16/14 White Wood Aster (Eurybia divaricata), Peaks of Otter, Bedford County, VA, 8/20/18 White Wood Aster (Eurybia divaricata), Linn Cove Visitor Center area, Avery County, NC, 8/12/19

 

         
Hairy White Oldfield Asters (Symphyotrichum pilosum), Durham, NC, 11/2/16, with Yellow-collared Scape Moth Sweet Everlasting (Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium), Eno River State Park, Durham County, NC, 8/27/10.  This plant was standing by itself, enduring the summer drought over two visits. Sweet Everlasting (Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium), its Asteraceae family membership more obvious.  River Park North, Greenville, Pitt County, NC, 11/10/10 Bushy Sea Oxeye Daisy or Bushy Seaside Tansy (Borrichia frutescens), Carolina Beach State Park, New Hanover County, NC, 8/3/09 Bitter Sneezeweed (Helenium amarum), Flat River Impoundment, Durham, NC, 8/15/10 Bitter Sneezeweed  (Helenium amarum), Ft. Fisher Basil Trail, New Hanover County, NC, 8/3/09 Purple Sneezeweed (Helenium flexuosum), Moses Cone Memorial Park, Watauga County, NC, 8/14/19 New England Aster (Aster novae-angliae), Daniel Boone Gardens, Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/12/09          

 

     
Purple-Node Joe-Pye Weed (Eupatorium purpureum), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/11/09 Purple-Node Joe-Pye-Weed (Eutrochium purpurum), Durham, NC, 6/28/19 Ambush bug on Boneset (Eupatorium genus), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 8/29/14 Climbing Hempvine (Mikania scandens) buds, Durham, NC, 8/1/19 Sandhill Chaffhead (Carphephorus bellidifolius), Weymouth Woods-Sandhills Nature Preserve, Southern Pines, NC, 10/24/18      

 
Dog Fennel (Eupatorium capillifolium), Lake Crabtree County Park, Wake County, NC, 11/2/11 Brown-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta), Durham, NC, 6/11/11 Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta), Durham, NC, 7/24/19 Brown-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia triloba), Durham, NC, 7/18/19  

Blue Mistflower (Conoclinium coelestinum), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 9/11/09 Blue Mistflower (Conoclinium coelestinum), Durham, NC, 9/29/19 White Snakeroot (Ageratina altissima), Moses Cone Memorial Park, Watauga County, NC, 8/14/19

 

     
Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) male flower buds (closeup), Durham, NC, 9/8/09. There were about 2000 of these approx. 10-flower units on this particular plant. Common Ragweed flower (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), among buds, Geitner Park, Hickory, Catawba County, NC, 9/29/09.  A typical mature Ragweed plant has thousands of flowers. Ragweed (Ambrosia genus), Durham, NC, 8/23/19 Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 9/11/09 Late Purple Aster (Symphyotrichum patens),  Geitner Park, Hickory, Catawba County, NC, 9/25/09 Hairy White Oldfield Aster (Symphyotricum pilosum), with an American Lady, Durham, NC, 11/05/12      

 

 
Common Wingstem (Verbesina alternifolia), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 8/21/09 Dense Blazing Star (Liatris spicata), Carolina Beach, New Hanover County, NC, 10/16/09 Philadelphia Fleabane (Erigeron philadelphicus), Durham, NC, 4/28/09 Fleabane (Erigeron genus), Ocracoke, Hyde County, NC, 4/16/19.  Someday I would like to learn the name of this species! Fleabane (Erigeron genus), with petals still rolled up. Port Aransas, TX (outskirts), 2/20/14. Not useful for an ID, but I found it fascinating! 

 

Horseweed   (either Conyza canadensis or Erigeron canadensis; it's unsettled), Durham, NC, 7/6/19.  Information from the U. of Wisconsin Extension Service Yerba de Tajo (Eclipta prostrata), Durham, NC, 9/14/19 Yerba-de-Tajo (Eclipta prostrata), Durham, NC, 9/9/19 Horseweed flower (either Conyza canadensis or Erigeron canadensis; it's unsettled), Durham, NC, 7/12/19 Prairie Fleabane (Erigeron strigosus), Durham, NC, 4/29/19 Oxeye Daisies (Leucanthemum vulgare), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 5/15/19

 

       
Bull Thistle (Cirsium vulgare), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/11/19 Yellow Thistle (Cirsium horridulum), Ocracoke, Hyde County, NC, 4/16/19 Nodding Thistle (Carduus nutans), Hayesville, Clay County, NC, 5/30/13 Common Wild Quinine (Parthenium integrifolium), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC (~Mile 5), 6/24/10        

Treasureflower (Gazania linearis), Larkspur, Marin County, CA, 4/28/17. Native to southern Africa and classified as "invasive" in California. Treasureflower (Gazania linearis), common in Larkspur, Marin County, CA, 4/30/17. Florida Tasselflower (Emilia fosbergii), Fort Myers, Lee County, FL, 2/24/19 Florida Tasselflower (Emilia fosbergii), South Lido Park, Sarasota County, FL, 3/29/12

       
Salsify (Tragopogon hybridus), a very anomalous sighting, Larkspur, Marin County, CA, 5/30/19 Purple Salsify (Tragopogon porrifolius), Larkspur, Marin County, CA, 4/26/18 Goatsbeard or Yellow Salsify (Tragopogon dubius) seedhead, Larkspur, Marin County, NC, 5/30/19 Hairy Galinsoga (Galinsoga quadriradiata), Moses Cone Memorial Park, Watauga County, NC, 8/14/19 Common Groundsel inflorescence (Senecio vulgaris), Durham, NC, 9/14/19 Common Groundsel plant (Senecio vulgaris), Durham, NC, 9/14/19 Sea Myrtle or Groundsel Tree (Baccharis halimifolia) flowers, near major road, Durham, NC, 11/16/18        

Balsaminaceae family, Asteranae superorder

     
Pale Jewelweed or Pale Touch-Me-Not (Impatiens pallida), Tanawha Trail (Blue Ridge Parkway Milepost 304), NC, 8/17/15 Pale Jewelweed or Pale Touch-Me-Not (Impatiens palida), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/4/08 Spotted Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis), Durham, NC, 6/12/19 Touch Me Not or Spotted Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis), with tiny Tarnished Plant Bug, Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/6/08 Touch Me Not or Spotted Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) seeds and burst pod, Geitner Park, Hickory, Catawba County, NC, 9/25/09. Touching a ripe pod, which has a slender convex shape, causes it to split at the seams, freeing the seeds.      

Bignonia (Bignoniaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

   
Cross Vine (Bignonia capreolata), Durham, NC, 5/4/09 Trumpet Creeper (Campsis radicans), Occoneechee Mountain Natural Area, Orange County, 6/13/09 Trumpet Creeper (Campsis radicans), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 8/9/09    

Forget-me-not (Boraginaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

     
Virginia Bluebell (Mertensia virginica), Duke Gardens, Durham, NC, 4/6/09.  Bay Forget-Me-Nots (Myosotis laxa), Flat River Waterfowl Impoundment, Durham County, NC, 3/24/19 True Forget-me-not (Myositis genus), Boone Greenway, Watauga County, NC, 7/2/10.  Probably an introduced species. Virginia Stickseed (Hackelia virginiana), NC Zoo, Asheboro, NC, 6/21/09.       

Bellflower (Campanulaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

 
Cardinal Flower (Lobelia cardinalis), Durham, NC, 9/1/08 Cardinal Flower (Lobelia cardinalis), Durham, NC, 9/9/19 Great Blue Lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica), NC Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 9/6/09 Downy Lobelia (Lobelia puberula).  Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 6/4/08 Small lobelia, perhaps Indian Tobacco (Lobelia inflata), Mitchell County, NC, 8/19/14 Indian Tobacco (Lobelia inflata), Peaks of Otter, Bedford County, VA, 8/22/18 Venus' Looking Glass (Triodanis perfoliata), Durham, NC, 5/18/09 Venus' Looking Glass (Triodanis perfoliata), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 5/19/09 Tall Bellflower (Campanula americana), Moses Cone Memorial Park, Watauga County, NC, 8/12/09.  Thanks to Janie Harmon Owens for ID. Southern Harebell (Campanula divaricata), Moses Cone Memorial Park, Watauga County, NC, 8/14/19  

Honeysuckle (Caprifoliaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

Coral Honeysuckle (Lonacera sempervirens), American Tobacco Trail (miles 4-6), Durham, NC, 4/13/09 Coral Honeysuckle (Lonacera sempervirens), Eno River State Park, Orange County, 5/8/07 Mapleleaf Viburnum (Viburnum acerifolium), Durham, NC, 5/1/19 Possumhaw Virburnum (Viburnum nudum), Durham, NC, 4/8/09 Possumhaw Virburnum (Viburnum nudum) trunk (same plant as on left), Durham, NC, 4/8/09 American Black Elderberry or Common Elderberry (Sambucus nigra), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/11/19 American Black Elderberry (Sambucus nigra), an introduced species, Durham, NC, 5/29/18 Common Cornsalad (Valerianella locusta), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 4/12/09 Beaked Cornsalad (Valerianella radiata), Durham, NC, 4/9/19

Morning Glory (Convolvulaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

Little White Morning Glory (Ipomoea lacunosa), Durham, NC, 8/23/19 Little White Morning Glory (Ipomoea lacunosa), Flat River Impoundment, Durham County, NC, 10/27/10, illustrating how varied this species is. White Morning Glories (Ipomoea lacunosa), Prairie Ridge Ecostation, Raleigh, Wake County, NC, 9/10/16 Little White Morning Glory (Ipomoea lacunosa),(purple variety), Durham, NC, 9/29/19 Little White Morning Glory (Ipomoea lacunosa), (purple variety), Durham, NC, 9/29/19

Man-of-the-earth or Wild Potato Vine (Ipomoea pandurata), a kind of morning glory.  American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 6/29/09 Man-of-the-earth or Wild Potato Vine (Ipomoea pandurata), Durham, NC, 7/12/09 Redstar (Ipomoea coccinea), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 9/11/09

Common Morning Glory (Ipomoea purpurea), Durham, NC, 9/29/19 Common Morning Glory (Ipomoea purpurea), showing pink tube, American Tobacco Trail (downtown), Durham, NC, 10/8/19 Common Morning Glory (Ipomoea purpurea), American Tobacco Trail (downtown), Durham, NC, 10/8/19 Common Morning Glories (Ipomoea purpurea), Jordan Lake Dam, Chatham County, NC, 9/20/10

Beach Morning Glory (Ipomoea imperati), Gulfport, Harrison County, MS, 10/20/13 Tievine or Cotton Morning Glory (Ipomoea cordatotriloba), Ft. Fisher Basin Trail, New Hanover, NC, 9/28/10 Common Dodder or Scaldweed (Cuscuta gronovii), Durham, NC, 9/3/16, formerly considered to be a member of Cuscutaceae family.

Ebenaceae family, Asteranae superorder

         
Common Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) fruits, Durham, NC, 9/29/19          

Gentian (Gentianaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

         
Narrowleaf Rose Gentian or Rose Pink (Sabatia angularis), Ft. Fisher Recreational Area, New Hanover County, NC, 8/3/09 Salt Marsh Pink (Sabatia stellaris), Ft. Fisher Recreational Area, New Hanover County, NC, 8/6/09          

Waterleaf (Hydrophyllaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

         
Miami Mist (Phacelia purshii), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 5/2/10, one of many near the parking lot.  ID thanks to Bailey Winstead, who says they are common in the Smoky Mountains. They are not native this far east, according to Harry LeGrand, who confirmed the species ID.  These are similar to the Fringed Phacelia, which has fewer flowers per stem. Maybe Fernleaf Phacelia (Phacelia bipinnatafida), in the mountain garden section of the NC Botanical Garden, 5/9/10. Waterpods (Hydrolea quadrivalvis) common in the formerly adjoining pond, Jordan Lake Gamelands, Chatham County, NC, 8/30/15. ID thanks to Su Kim.          

Mint (Lamiaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

Same Beefsteak Plant (Perilla frutescens), Durham, NC, 9/9/19 Same Beefsteak Plant (Perilla frutescens), Durham, NC, 9/9/19 Henbit (Lamium amplexicaule), Durham, 4/3/09. Note the tiny black midge on the top flower. Purple Dead-nettle (Lamium purpureum), Durham, NC, 4/3/09 Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Durham, NC, 4/8/09 Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) with a cuckoo bee (Nomada genus, Heminomada subgenus, possibly Imbricata species), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 4/22/09 Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 4/22/09

 

     
Helmetflower (Scutellaria integrifolia), Durham, NC, 6/6/09 Blue Skullcap (Scutellaria laterifolia), Durham, NC, 9/22/19 Heal-All (Prunella vulgaris), Tanawha Trail, Avery County, NC, 7/8/11 Spotted Bee-balm (Monarda punctata), Carolina Beach State Park, New Hanover County, NC, 8/12/11 Scarlet Bee-balm (Monarda didyma), Salem College, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, NC, 6/7/09      

White Beebalm (Monarda clinopodia), at the summit of Harkening Hill, Peaks of Otter Recreational Area, Bedford County, VA, 7/9/09 Bergamot or Lavender Bee-balm (Monarda fistulosa), NC Zoo, Asheboro, NC, 6/21/09 Broad-toothed Hedgenettle
(Stachys latidens), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 6/30/18
Bugle Hedgenettle (Stachys ajugoides), Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, CA, 5/31/19 Obedient Plant (Physostegia virginiana), NC Botanical Garden, 9/6/09


 
Dune Bluecurls (Trichostema species 1), 9/28/10.These wildflowers were common in the sand on the initial stretch of the Fort Fisher Basin Trail, New Hanover County, NC. Carpet Bugleweed (Ajuga reptans, introduced from Eurasia), about 3 feet high, just off Lake Crabtree trail on southern side of lake.  Lake Crabtree County Park, Wake County, NC, 4/16/09.  Southern Horse Balm or Deepwoods Horse Balm (Collinsonia tuberosa), Tanawha Trail, Avery County, NC, 8/12/19 American Beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), Sandy Creek Park, Durham, NC, 9/18/19  

Lentibulariaceae family, Asteranae superorder

         
Yellow Bladderwort (Utricularia macrorhiza), Prairie Ridge Ecostation, Raleigh, Wake County, NC, 8/10/17          

False Pimpernel (Linderniaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

         
Malaysian False Pimpernel (Lindernia crustacea).  Durham, NC, 9/7/19 Malaysian False Pimpernel (Lindernia crustacea), showing leaves.  IDs thanks to Su Kim!  Durham, NC, 9/17/19 Malaysian False Pimpernel (Lindernia crustacea).  IDs thanks to Su Kim! Durham, NC, 9/17/19          

Loganiaceae family, Asteranae superorder

Carolina Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens), Durham, NC, 3/30/09

Olive (Oleaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

       
Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) fruit, Durham, NC, 8/15/09 Fringe Tree (Chionanthus virginicus), Durham, NC, 4/22/10 Chinese Privet (Ligustrum sinense).  Officially invasive. Durham, NC, 5/8/19.  One of two species in this area that really deserve to be called "invasive." Chinese Privet (Ligustrum sinense) fruits, Durham, NC, 9/29/19        

Broomrape (Orobanchaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

       
Bear Corn, formerly known as Squawroot (Conopholis americana), Linn Cove Viaduct  (south end of Tanawha Trail), past blooming. Bear Corn, formerly known as Squawroot (Conopholis americana), Glassmine Gap, Macon County, NC, 5/28/13 Purple Owl's Clover (Castilleja exserta), Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, CA, 5/31/19 Florida Bluehearts (Buchnera floridana), Bailey Tract, Sanibel, Lee County, FL, 12/5/15        

Lopseed (Phrymaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

         
Sharpwing Monkeyflower (Mimulus alatus), Durham, NC, 7/14/19 Same Sharpwing Monkeyflower (Mimulus alatus), Durham, NC, 7/14/19 Orange Bush Monkeyflowers (Diplacus aurantiacus), Larkspur, Marin County, CA, 4/29/17 Orange Bush Monkeyflowers (Diplacus aurantiacus), Lake Lagunitas, Marin County, CA, 5/7/15          

Plantain (Plantaginaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

     
English Plantain  (Plantago lanceola), Ocracoke, Hyde County, NC, 5/10/09 English Plantain (Plantago lanceolata), Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, NC, 5/31/19 Common Plantain (Plantago major), Sharp Top Mountain, Peaks of Otter Recreational Area, Bedford County, VA, 7/10/09 Seems to be a struggling Common Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea).  Duke Gardens, Durham, NC, 6/12/09 Common Foxglove, West Point on the Eno, Durham, NC, 7/4/09.  Cultivated.      

Phlox (Polemoniaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

     
Trailing Phlox (Phlox nivalis), Durham, NC, 4/3/09 Eastern Blue Phlox, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 4/10/09 Wild Sweetwilliam (Phlox maculata), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/12/19 Drummond Phlox (Phlox Drummonii), Mustang Beach, Nueces County, TX, 2/20/14

Madder (Rubiaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

   
Azure Bluet (Houstonia caerulia), Durham, NC, 4/7/09 Azure Bluet (Houstonia caerulia), Durham, NC, 5/1/19 Longleaf Summer Bluet (Houstonia longifolia), Graybeard Trail, Montreat, Buncombe County, NC, 5/3/12 Venus' Pride (Houstonia purpurea), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham, NC, 5/20/09 Venus' Pride (Houstonia purpurea), North Carolina Botanical Garden (nature trail), Orange County, NC, 5/6/19 Same Venus' Pride (Houstonia purpurea), North Carolina Botanical Garden (nature trail), Orange County, NC, 5/6/19    

Purple Bedstraw (Galium latifolium), Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, NC, 4/27/19 Largeflower Mexican Clover (Richardia grandiflora), Fort Myers, Lee County, FL, 2/24/19 Bedstraw or Sticky Willy (Galium aparine), Durham, NC, 3/30/19 Bedstraw or Stickywilly (Galium aparine), Durham, NC, 4/9/09 Bedstraw or Stickywilly (Galium aparine), Durham, NC, 4/14/09

Common Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) blossoms, Third Fork Trail, Durham, NC, 6/6/11 Common Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) blossums, NC Zoo, Asheboro, NC, 6/21/09 Partridgeberry (Mitchella repens) flowers, among many, Durham, NC, 5/9/19 Partridgeberry (Mitchella repens) fruit, the first in that area. Durham, NC, 5/9/19 Blooming Partridgeberry (Mitchella repens), Congaree National Park, Richland County, 4/30/11 Virginia Buttonweed (Diodia virginiana), Durham, NC, 6/12/19 Virginia Buttonweed (Diodia virginiana), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 8/21/09

Nightshade (Solanaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

     
Carolina Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 5/30/09 Carolina Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) flower with katydid nymph, Durham, NC, 6/11/09 Carolina Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) fruits, Durham, NC, 7/4/19 Climbing Nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) flowers, Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/14/19.  An introduced plant. Climbing Nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) fruits, Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/14/19 Climbing Nightshade (Solanum dulcamara), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/12/09 West Indian Nightshade (Solanum ptychanthum), Durham, NC, 6/28/19      

Figwort (Scrophulariaceae) family, Asteranae superorder

 
Persian Speedwell (Veronica persica), Durham, NC, 2/20/10 Persian Speedwell (Veronica persica), North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, Wake County, 2/24/12 Persian Speedwell (Veronica persica), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 1/29/13 Persian Speedwells (Veronica persica), Durham, NC, 3/15/10  

 

Japanese Mazus (Mazus pumilus), Durham, NC, 4/13/11 Blue Toadflax (Linaria canadensis), Lake Crabtree County Park, Wake County, NC, 4/16/09 Eastern Gray Beardtongue (Penstemon canescens), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 5/11/12 Penstemon genus member, Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 5/21/09.  Looks like Multiflora Penstemon (Penstemon multiflora), but is outside that species' natural range, i.e., hardiness zones 8-10. Field of penstemons, same species as on left, same time and place, i.e., Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 5/21/09.  Their blooming time was about 2 weeks. Moth Mullein (Verbascum blattaria), Occoneechee Mountain Natural ARea, Orange County, NC, 6/13/09 Common Toadflax or Butter and Eggs (Linaria vulgaris) at Lake Abbott, Peaks of Otter Recreational Area, Bedford, VA, 7/9/09.  An introduced species.


         
Downy Yellow False Foxglove (Aureolaria virginica), North Carolina Botanical Garden (woodland trail), Orange County, NC, 7/16/15 Spreading False Foxglove (Aureolaria patula), Peaks of Otter, Bedford County, VA, 8/20/18 Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus), Flat River Impoundment, Durham County, NC, 8/5/11 Appalachian Turtlehead (Chelone lyonii) buds, Tanawha Trail (Milepost 304), Avery County, NC, 8/17/15 Appalachian Turtlehead (Chelone lyonii), Tanawha Trail (Milepost 304), Avery County, NC, 8/3/12          

 

Purple False Foxglove (Agalinis purpurea), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC  9/17/08.  Note the many tiny "hairs." Purple False Foxglove (Agalinis purpurea), Durham, NC, 9/21/19

 

Verbenaceae family, Asteranae superorder

     
Lanceleaf Fogfruit (Phyla lanceolata), Carolina Beach, New Hanover County, NC, 8/3/09 Desert Sand Verbena (Abronia villosa), Stinson Beach, Marin County, CA, 9/5/13 Brazilian Vervain (Verbena brasiliensis), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 10/6/19

Caryophyllanae superorder

Stone Plant (Aizoaceae) family, Caryophyllanae superorder

       
Hottentot Fig or Ice Plant (Carpobrotus edulis) flower, Larkspur, Marin County, CA, 4/25/18. This is officially an invasive species, introduced from South Africa. Shoreline Seapurslane (Sesuvium portulacastrum) or Western Seapurslane (Sesuvium verrucosum), Port Aransas Nature Preserve at Charlie's Pasture, Nueces County, TX, 2/7/13        

Amaranth (Amaranthaceae) family, Caryophyllanae superorder

         
Annual Glasswort (Salicornia virginica), Fort Fisher State Recreation Area, New Hanover County, NC, 3/11/11.  Yes, these plants actually bloom, but this plant was not doing so.  Flowers are tiny and skinny.          

Cactus (Cactaceae) family, Caryophyllanae superorder

       
Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia genus), Duke Gardens, Durham County, NC, 6/12/09 Prickly Pears (Opuntia genus) with flowers, Carolina Beach State Park, New Hanover County, NC, 5/23/11         

Pinks (Caryophyllaceae) family, Caryophyllanae superorder

       
Common Chickweed (Stellaria media), Durham, NC, 4/3/09, the most common weed in my neighborhood. Giant Chickweed (Stellaria pubera), Duke Gardens, Durham, NC, 4/6/09. Beach Starwort (Stellaria littoralis), Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, CA, 5/31/19 Common Mouse-ear Chickweed (Cerastium fontanum), Flat River Waterfowl Impoundment, Durham County, NC, 3/24/19        

Silvery Nailwort or Silverling (Paronychia agyrocoma), seen on ledge at the McAfee's Knob summit (Roanoke County, VA, 6/15/11), about 2 inches high. Bouncing Bet (Saponaria officinalis), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/11/19 Common Soapwort or Bouncing Bet (Saponaria officinalis), Peaks of Otter, Bedford County, VA, 8/20/18 Sweet William (Dianthus caryophyllus), Durham,
NC, 4/9/09

 

Deptford Pink (Dianthus ameria), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 5/30/09 Deptford Pink (Dianthus armeria), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/14/19 Common Catchfly (Silene gallica), Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, CA, 5/31/19. This is an introduced plant. Fire Pink (Silene virginica), Moses Cone Memorial Park, Watauga County, NC, 6/18/19 Fire Pink (Silene virginica), Tanawha Trail, Avery County, NC, 6/27/14

Molluginaceae family, Caryophyllanae superorder

         
Carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata), Durham, NC, 8/27/19          

Pokeweed (Phytolaccaceae) family, Caryophyllanae superorder

         
Pokeweed (Phytolacca genus) flowers, Durham, NC, 5/27/09 Pokeweed berries, Durham, NC, 7/15/09          

Buckwheat (Polygonaceae) family, Caryophyllanae superorder

     
Red Sorrel (Rumex acetosella) Sorrel (Rumex genus), Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, Dare County, NC, 5/10/09 Pennsylvania Smartweed (Persicaria pensylvatica), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/11/09 Swamp Smartweed (Persicaria hydropiperoides), Durham, NC, 9/14/19 White Smartweed (Persicaria attenuata), Sandy Creek Park, Durham, NC, 9/18/19 Pale Smartweed (Persicaria lapathifolia), Sandy Creek Park, Durham, NC, 9/18/19      

Purslane (Portulacaceae) family, Caryophyllanae superorder

     
Virginia Spring Beauty (Claytonia virginica), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 3/11/09 Candy Flower (Claytonia sibirica), Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, CA, 5/31/19 Paraguayan Purslane (Portulaca amilis), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 8/25/09.  An introduced plant, seen uncommonly here Paraguayan Purslane (Portulaca amilis), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 9/11/09 Paraguayan Purslane (Portulaca amilis), an introduced plant found in the Atlantic coast states from Virginia to Florida.  Durham, NC, 9/14/12      

Dillenianae superorder

Mustard (Brassicaceae) family, Dillenianae superorder

     
Toothwort (Cardamine concatenata, Cardamine laciniata or Dentaria laciniata), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 3/14/07.  This is one of the favorite plants of Falcate Orangetip butterflies. Cutleaf Toothwort (Cardamine concatenata), Eno River State Park, Orange County, NC, 3/24/11 Cutleaf Toothwort (Cardamine concatenata), showing variation in leaf shape, Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 3/23/11 Sea Rocket (Cakile edentula), Ocracoke Island (north end), 5/10/09 Shepherd's Purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris), Durham, NC, 5/21/19 Wild Peppergrass or Virginia Pepperweed (Lepidium virginicum), Durham, NC, 6/6/09 Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus), Larkspur, Marin County, CA, 5/30/19 Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus), Larkspur, Marin County, CA, 5/30/19      

 

Mediumflowered Bittercress (Cardamine parviflora), Durham, NC, 4/5/09 Pennsylvania Bittercress (Cardamine pensylvanica), Durham, NC, 1/26/12 Field Mustard (Brassica rapa), Durham, NC, 3/11/12 Winter Cress (Barbarea verna), American Tobacco Trail (Miles 4-6), Durham, NC, 4/13/09 Money Plant (Lunaria annua), Durham, NC, 6/7/18 Dame's Rocket (Hesperis matronalis), Swannanoa River Road, Warren Wilson College, Asheville, NC, 5/3/12.  An introduced plant, not considered invasive in NC.

Clusiaceae family, Dillenianae superorder

Common St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), Boone Greenway Trail, Watauga County, NC, 7/2/10 Common St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), Moses Cone Memorial Park, Watauga County, NC, 6/18/19 Clasping St. John's Wort (Hypericum gymnanthum), Durham, NC, 7/14/19 St. John's Wort (Hypericum genus), Durham, NC, 7/14/19 St. Andrew's Cross (Hypericum hypericoides), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 8/9/09

Diapensiaceae family, Dillenianae superorder

 
Beetleweed (Galax urceolata), Tanawha Trail, Avery County, NC  6/16/15 Another Beetleweed (Galax urceolata), Tanawha Trail, Avery County, NC, 6/16/19  

Sun Dew (Droseraceae) family, Dillenianae superorder

Venus Fly Trap (Dionaea muscipula), Carolina Beach State Park, New Hanover County, NC, 12/20/06.  This species depends on regular forest fires to survive; otherwise it doesn't get enough sunlight.  Note the sandspur.

Heath (Ericaceae) family, Dillenianae superorder

     
Catawba Rhododendron (Rhododendron catawbiense), Hanging Rock State Park, Stokes County, NC, 5/22/08 Rosebay Rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum), Moses Cone Memorial Park, Watauga County, NC, 6/18/19 Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia), (Rhododendron minus), Hanging Rock State Park, Stokes County, NC, 5/22/08 Indian Pipe (Monotropa uniflora), Macon County, NC  8/9/05.  This view of a flower shows that it has the normal reproductive organs, in contrast to widespread belief that it is not actually a plant, but a fungus.  This plant produces no chlorophyll, obtaining its nutrients from the soil. Indian Pipes (Monotropa uniflora), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 5/30/09      

 

       
Flame Azalea (Rhododendron calendulaceum), Wind Rock, Giles County, VA, 6/16/11 Florida Azalea (Rhododendron austrinum), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 4/10/09 Pinxter Flower (Rhododendron periclymenoides), Oconoeechee Mountain Natural Area, Orange County, NC, 4/14/11, appeared deep in the woods. Pinxter Flower or Pink Azalea (Rhododendron periclymenoides), Museum of Life and Science, Durham, NC, 4/23/09 Pinxter Flower (Rhododendron periclymenoides),Eno River State Park, Orange County, NC, 4/24/10        


         
Blueberry (Vaccinium genus) flowers, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC 4/10/09 Deerberry (Vaccinium stamineum),  Eno River State Park, Bobbitt's Hole Trail, Orange County, NC, 4/24/10 Deerberry (Vaccinium stamineum), Durham, NC, 5/1/19 Fetterbush, Mountain Andromeda or Lily-of-the-Valley shrub (Pieris floribunda), Hanging Rock State Park, Stokes County, NC, 4/11/10 Fetterbush Lyonia (Lyonia lucida), with larger flowers (~10 mm long).  These were very common in this park.          

 

Sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 6/21/10 Trailing Arbutus (Epigaea repens), Occoneechee Mountain Natural Area, Orange County, NC, 4/18/13 Striped Wintergreen (Chimapila maculata) with buds, Durham, NC, 5/23/09.  Used to considered an Ericaceae family member. Striped Wintergreen (Chimapila maculata), in full bloom, 5/31/09 Striped Wintergreen (Chimapila maculata), Durham, NC, 6/1/09 Striped Wintergreen (Chimapila maculata), 6/2/09 Striped Wintergreen (Chimapila maculata), Durham, NC, 6/3/09 Striped Wintergreen (Chimapila maculata), Durham, NC,  6/15/09

Mallow (Malvaceae) family, Dillenianae superorder

 
Caliche Globemallow (Sphaeralcea laxa), Port Aransas, Nueces County, TX, 2/21/14. Bristly Mallow (Modiola caroliniana), Durham, NC, 4/22/19 Bristly Mallow (Modiola caroliniana), Old Salem, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, NC, 6/7/09 Bristly Mallow (Modiola caroliniana), in a wild section off the parking lot, NC Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 5/9/10 Desert Five Spot (Eremalche rotundifolia), Larkspur, Marin County, CA, 6/3/19  

 

Rose Mallow (Pavonia lasiopetala), San Antonio Botanical Garden, Bexar County, TX, 5/27/10 Rose of Sharon (Hibiscus syriacus), Sandy Creek Park, Durham, NC, 9/18/19 Swamp Rose Mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos), one of hundreds blooming at the Flat River Impoundment, Durham, NC, 7/17/11 Swamp Rose Mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/11/19 Checker Mallow (Sidalcea malvaeflora), Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, CA, 5/31/19

Primrose (Primulaceae family), Dillenianae superorder

 
Whorled Yellow Loosestrife (Lysimachia quadrifolia), War Spur Loop, Giles County, VA, 6/16/11 Four-flower Yellow Loosestrife (Lysimachia quadriflora), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 6/27/14 Flaxleaf Pimpernel (Lysimachia monelli), Port Aransas Nature Preserve at Charlie's Pasture, Nueces County, TX 2/21/14.  This species was introduced from the Mediterranean area. Scarlet Pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), Larkspur, Marin County, CA, 4/28/17  

Willow (Salicaceae) family, Dillenianae superorder

       
Willow catkin (Salix genus), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 3/11/09.  Note the fly at the base of the catkin. Black Willow (Salix nigra) catkins, Ocracoke, Hyde County, NC, 4/15/19 Weeping Willow (Salix babylonica) catkins and leaves, Durham, NC, 3/24/10        

Pitcher Plant (Sarraceniaceae) family, Dillenianae superorder

       
Yellow Pitcher Plants (Sarracenia flava), NC Zoo, Asheboro, NC, 6/21/09 Whitetop Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia leucophylla), NC Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 9/6/09        

Violet (Violaceae) family, Dillenianae superorder

Common Blue Violet (Viola sororia), Eno River State Park, Old Cole Mill Road access, Orange County, NC, 3/6/08 Common Blue Violets (Viola sororia), Sandy Creek Park, Durham, NC, 3/30/18 Common Blue Violets (Viola sororia) and Confederate Violets (Viola sororia priceana), Montreat, Buncombe County, NC, 4/28/14 Confederate Violet (Viola sororia priceana) variation, Durham, NC, 4/12/18 Confederate Violet (Viola sororia priceana), Durham, NC, 3/10/11

 

       
Field Pansy (Viola bicolor), North Carolina Museum of Art, 2/24/12 Field Pansy (Viola bicolor), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 3/11/09.  Field Pansy (Viola bicolor), Sandy Creek Park, Durham, NC, 3/30/10 Field Pansy (Viola bicolor), Durham, NC, 3/12/09 Field Pansy (Viola bicolor), Flat River Waterfowl Impoundment, Durham County, NC, 3/24/19 Another Field Pansy (Viola bicolor), Flat River Waterfowl Impoundment, Durham County, NC, 3/24/19 Downy Yellow Violet (Viola pubescens), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 4/4/09 Halberd-leaved (Yellow) Violet (Viola hastata).  Seen at the same elevation as the lake (about 1200 feet) at Hanging Rock State Park, Stokes County, NC, 4/12/10.

 

Birdsfoot Violets (Viola pedata), Weymouth Woods-Sandhills Nature Preserve, Moore County, NC, 4/6/18 Wood Violet (Viola palmata), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham, NC, 4/22/09 Violet, Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 4/18/09 Canada Violet or Canadian White Violet (Viola canadensis), Appalachian Trail, leading to Siler's Bald, Swain County, NC, 5/30/13

Saxifraganae superorder

Witch-hazel (Hamamelidaceae) family, Saxifraganae superorder

 
Sweet Gum (Liquidambar styraciflua), Durham, NC, 11/16/08 (left), 4/14/09 (middle) and 4/02/09 (right)    


         
Mountain Witch Alder (Fothergilla major), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 4/10/09 Mountain Witch Alder (Fothergilla major), Montreat, Buncombe County, NC, 4/29/14 Early Witch Hazel (Hamamelis vernalis) flower, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 2/2/11          

Saxifrage (Saxifragaceae) family, Saxifraganae superorder

Early Saxifrage (Saxifraga virginiensis), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham, NC, 3/19/09.  Mottled leaf is part of a Trout Lily.  ID thanks to Joan Carr of South Williamson,  Kentucky. Heartleaf Foamflower (Tiarella cordifolia), Duke Gardens, 4/6/09 Heartleaf Foamflower (Tiarella cordifolia), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 4/10/09

Magnolianae subclass

Aristolochiaceae family, Magnolianae superorder

         
Little Brown Jug (Hexastylis arifolia) flower bud and some leaves, Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 3/22/19 Little Brown Jug (Hexastylis arifolia) leaves, apparently injured by recent harsh weather, same location and date          

Berberidaceae family, Magnolianae superorder

Umbrella Leaf (Diphylleia cymosa) berries, Tanawha Trail, off the Blue Ridge Ridge Parkway, Mile 302, 8/5/08 Umbrella-leaf (Diphylleia cymosa), berries and leaf, Linn Cove Viaduct Access Trail, Avery County, NC, 7/1/10 Mayapple (Podophyllum pentatum), Durham, 4/20/06.  Photo by Karl D. Gottschalk Mayapple, Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 4/22/09 Heavenly Bamboo (Nandina domestica), Durham, NC, 6/3/09 Heavenly Bamboo (Nandina domestica) berries, Sandhills Horticultural Garden, Pinehurst, Moore County, NC, 11/28/09

Cabombaceae family, Magnolianae superorder

         
Watershield (Brasenia schreberi), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 6/27/11          


Calycanthaceae family, Magnolianae superorder

         
Eastern Sweetshrub (Calycanthus floridus), Swannanoa Trail, Warren Wilson College, Asheville, NC, 4/28/14          

Fumariaceae family, Magnolianae superorder

       
Dutchman's Breeches (Dicentra cucullaria), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 4/5/06 Dutchman's Breeches (Dicentra cucullaria), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 4/4/09 Bleeding Heart (Dicentra eximia), seen at about 3700 feet in elevation on Sharp Top Mountain in the Peaks of Otter Recreational Area (National Parks Service), Bedford County, VA on 7/10/09.  About 20 plants were seen in close proximity near amedium rain forest. Bleeding Heart (Dicentra eximia), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 4/10/09 Yellow Fumewort (Corydalis flavula), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham, NC, 3/30/10        

Lardizabalaceae family, Magnolianae superorder

     
Chocolate Vine (Akebia quinata).  A vine with five leaves coming from one stem.  These are young leaves.  Durham, NC, 3/24/09.  It is an introduced species from Japan.  ID thanks to Will Cook.   USDA info on Chocolate Vine.      

Lauraceae family, Magnolianae superorder

         
Sassafras (Sassafras albidum), American Tobacco Trail (miles 4-6), Durham, NC, 4/13/09 Spicebush (Lindera benzoin) flowers, Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 3/20/10          

Magnoliaceae family, Magnolianae superorder

     
Tulip Tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), Durham, NC, 5/17/06.  These flowers are usually not seen until they fall from these tall trees. Southern Magnolia or Bull Bay (Magnolia grandiflora), Durham, NC, 5/16/09 Southern Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Durham, NC, 5/10/10.  Photo by Peter C. Charles.      

Nelumbonaceae family, Magnolianae superorder

         
American Lotus flower (Nelumbo lutea), Estuarium, Washington, Beaufort County, NC, 7/13/18          

Papaveraceae family, Magnolianae superorder

       
Bloodroot (Sanguin-aria canadensis), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC,  3/14/07 Bloodroots (Sanguinaria canadensis), NC Zoo, Asheboro, NC, 3/24/10.  Not part of any formal exhibit.  Photo by Karl D. Gottschalk. Blindeyes (Papaver dubium), Durham, NC, 4/23/09 White Prickly Poppy (Argemone albiflora) with 3 beetles and 5 tiny bees. Riverside Nature Center, Kerrville, Kerr County, TX, 5/27/10 Unfolding White Prickly Poppy: the whole process took place within seconds.  Also from Riverside Nature Center, Kerrville, Kerr County, TX, 5/27/10 California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica), Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, CA, 5/31/19        

Ranunculaceae family, Magnolianae superorder

     
Round Lobed Hepatica (Hepatica americana), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 3/14/07.  Rue Anemone (Thalictrum thalictoides), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 3/31/09 Lady-rue (Thalictrum clavatum), Linn Cove Visitor Center Nature Trail, Avery County, NC, 6/16/19 Lesser Celandine (Ranunculus ficaria), Sandy Creek Park, Durham, NC, 3/19/10      

 

       
Hooked Buttercup (Ranunculus recurvatus), Durham, NC, 4/4/09 Close-up of Hooked Buttercup (Ranunculus recurvatus), Durham, NC, 4/11/09 Early Buttercup (Ranunculus fascicularis ), Durham, NC, 4/14/18 St. Anthony's Turnip or Bulbous Buttercup (Ranunculus bulbosus), Occoneechee Mountain Natural Area, Orange County, NC, 4/18/13 St. Anthony's Turnip (Ranunculus bulbosus), Durham, NC, 4/11/09        

 

       
Wild Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 4/10/09 Tall Mountain Larkspur (Delphinium scaposum ), Lake Lagunitas, Marin County, CA, 5/7/15 Tall Thimbleweed (Anemone virginiana), which has a very long stem with basal leaves.  Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 6/24/09 Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) , Daniel Boone Gardens, Boone, Watauga County, NC, 7/8/11  Note: thumbnail has been rotated 90°.        


         
Vasevine (Clematis viorna), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 6/19/10.  Note: thumbnail has been rotated 90°. View inside a Vasevine Flower (Clematis viorna), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 6/19/10 Swamp Leatherflower (Clematis crispa), River Park North, Greenville, Pitt County, NC, 7/28/17 Virgin's Bower (Clematis virginiana), Boone Gardens, Watauga County, NC, 8/12/09 Virgin's Bower (Clematis virginiana), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/11/19 White Baneberry (Actaea pachypoda) fruits,  Peaks of Otter, Bedford County, VA, 8/22/18          

Saururaceae family, Magnolianae superorder

       
Lizard's Tail (Saururus cernuus), Durham, NC, 6/1/09 Lizard's Tail (Saururus cernuus), Durham, NC, 6/18/10.  The sprays start out not drooping.        

Rosanae superorder

Aceraceae family, Rosanae superorder

         
Male Red Maple flowers, Third Fork Creek Trail, Durham, NC, 1/10/13 Red Maple (Acer rubrum) male flowers, Durham, NC, 2/26/09 Male Red Maple flowers, Durham, NC, 2/27/11 Female Red Maple flowers, Durham, NC, 3/2/11 Female Red Maple (Acer rubrum) flowers, with some producing fruit.  Durham, NC 3/24/10 Female Red Maple flowers, some with forming fruit.  Durham, NC, 3/28/10          


         
Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) flowers, Durham, NC, 3/29/10          

Anacardiaceae family, Rosanae superorder

     
Poison Ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), Durham, NC, 5/4/09 Poison Ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), Ocracoke (Hammock Hills Nature Trail), Hyde County, NC  4/18/19      

Apiaceae family, Rosanae superorder

   
Golden Alexander (Zizia aurea), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 4/10/09 Blooming Largeleaf Pennyworts (Hydrocotyle bonariensis), Ocracoke, Hyde County, NC, 5/26/17 Queen Anne's Lace or Wild Carrot (Daucus carota), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 5/19/09.  Young flowers. Queen Anne's Lace or Wild Carrot (Daucus carota), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 5/19/09.  Mature flowers. Queen Anne's Lace buds, American Tobacco Trail (~Mile 5), Durham, NC, 6/24/10.  There was a severe drought in middle and late spring. Queen Anne's Lace flowers, up close.  The pink one is immature.  Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 6/24/09. A tiny weevil is at left.    

         
Water Hemlock (Cicuta maculata), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 6/25/09, a very poisonous plant. Water Hemlock (Cicuta maculata), Durham, NC, 6/9/19 Rattlesnake Master (Eryngium yuccifolium), NC Zoo, Asheboro, NC, 6/21/09 (Sweet) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Corte Madera Ecological Reserve, Marin County, CA, 6/2/19.  Officially (and obviously!) invasive, native to coastal Mediterranean areas. Creeping Eryngo (Eryngium prostratum), Pitt County Arboretum (near lake), Greenville, NC, 7/28/17 Filmy Angelica (Angelica triquinata), Moses Cone Memorial Park, Watauga County, NC, 8/12/09          

 

         
Wild Chervil (Chaerophyllum tainturieri), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC, 4/17/12          

 

Aquifoliaceae family, Rosanae superorder

       
American Holly (Ilex opaca), Durham, NC, 5/8/09        

Araliaceae family, Rosanae superorder

           
Devil's Walkingstick (Aralia spinosa), a very thorny tree, Gulf Shores National Seashore Visitor Center, Ocean Springs, MS, 14/10 Beach Pennywort (Hydrocotyle genus, Araliaceae family) flowers, Ft. Fisher State Recreation Area, New hanover County, NC, 11/11/12            

Birch (Betulaceae) family, Rosanae superorder

 
Eastern Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) fruits (once female catkins), Durham, NC, 6/8/09 Female catkin, Hop- Hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), Durham, NC, 5/13/19 Female Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) catkin, fully developed. Durham, NC, 5/10/19

Female Eastern Hop-hornbeam catkin (Ostrya virginiana) male catkin, lengthening. Durham, NC, 4/1/19

Female Eastern Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) catkin, just emerging and still small and compact.  Durham, NC, 3/31/19 Eastern Hop-hornbeam male catkins in varying stages of maturing, exposing anthers, Durham, NC, 3/20/11.  (They are partially obscured by a blurred female catkin.) Part of an immature male Eastern Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) flower, Durham, NC, 3/24/10 Part of a mature male Eastern Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) male catkin, Durham, NC, 4/3/11.  This structure gradually unfolds (lengthens, really), exposing the anthers.  

American Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana)

American Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) fruits, surrounded by specialized leaves called an "involucral bract." Durham, NC, 7/1/19

Celastraceae family, Rosanae superorder

 
Hearts-a-Bustin' or American Strawberry Bush (Euonymus americanus), Durham, NC, 5/18/08 Hearts-a-bustin' (Euonymus americanus), Durham, NC, 5/6/09 Hearts-a-bustin' (Euonymus americanus) seedpod, opened, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 9/25/18 Grass-of-Parnassus (Parnassia palustris), Coastal Plain Habitat Garden, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 10/29/15

Cleomaceae family, Rosanae superorder

Spider Flower (Cleome hassleriana), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 10/31/11.  Genus ID thanks to Laura Thomas.

Cornaceae family, Rosanae superorder

       
Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida), Occoneechee Mountain Natural Area, Orange County, NC, 4/5/09 Common Dogwood (Cornus sanguinea), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 6/17/19. An introduced plant. Flower of the same Common Dogwood.

Crassulaceae family, Rosanae superorder

Woodland Stonecrop (Sedum ternatum), Eno River State Park, Orange County, NC, 4/24/10

Cucumber (Cucurbitaceae) family, Rosanae superorder

         
Creeping Cucumber or Guadelupe Cucumber (Melothria pendula), Durham, NC, 8/8/19.          

Elm (Ulmaceae) family, Rosanae superorder

         
American Elm (Ulmus americana), with maturing fruit.  Durham, NC, 3/24/10 American Elm flowers (Ulmus americana), Durham, NC, 3/18/19 Winged Elm (Ulmus alata) flowers, just starting to develop fruit.  Durham, NC, 3/24/10 Winged Elm (Ulmus alata) flowers and fruit. Sandy Creek Park, Durham, NC, 3/30/10          

Euphorbiaceae family, Rosanae superorder

Wild Poinsettia aka Fire-on-the-Mountain (Euphorbia cyathophora), Carolina Beach, New Hanover County, NC, 9/27/10.  Wild Poinsettia aka Mexican Fireplant (Euphorbia heterophylla), Lake Hollingsworth, Lakeland, FL, 9/21/10.  Copyright © 2010 Noela T. Martell Segura Warty Spurge (Euphorbia spathulata), Durham, NC, 4/30/19 Warty Spurge (Euphorbia spathulata), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 4/10/09 Tread-softly (Cnidoscolus stimulosus).  It has stinging hairs.  Carolina Beach State Park, New Hanover County, NC, 5/23/11

Fabaceae family, Rosanae superorder

   
Blue Wild Indigo or Prairie Blue Indigo (Baptisia australis), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham County, NC,  5/6/06 Spurred Butterfly Pea (Centrosema virginianum), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 10/5/19 Spurred Butterfly Pea (Centrosema virginianum) flower, Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 8/18/06 Butterfly Pea (Clitoria mariana), Eno River State Park, Orange County, NC, 8/27/10 Butterfly Pea (Clitoria mariana), Falls Lake Dam, Wake County, NC, 9/11/10  Black Locust flowers (Robinia pseudoacacia), Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, NC, 4/27/19 Bristly Locust flower (Robinia hispida), Hanging Rock State Park, Stokes County, NC, 5/22/08 Eastern Redbud (Cercis canadensis), Durham, NC, 3/29/09    

 

 
American Vetch (Vicia americana), Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, CA, 5/31/19 Another Common Vetch (Vicia sativa), Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, CA, 5/31/19 Common Vetch (Vicia sativa), Durham, NC, 4/3/09.  A vine. Common Vetch (Vicia sativa), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 4/13/09. Common Vetch (Vicia sativa), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 4/13/09.  

Large Yellow Vetch (probably Vicia grandiflora), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 4/13/09. Smooth Vetch (Vicia tetrasperma), Durham, NC, 4/25/19.  It is an introduced species. Another Smooth Vetch (Vicia tetrasperma), Camden County, NC (just north of Elizabeth City), 4/27 Carolina Vetch (Vicia caroliniana), Lake Crabtree County park, Wake County, NC, 4/16/09 Birdvetch or Cowvetch (Vicia cracca), Camden County, NC, 4/27/09 (near downtown Elizabeth City)

   
Everlasting Pea (Lathyrus latifolius), on Cedar Creek Nature Trail, Natural Bridge, Rockbridge County, VA, 7/8/09 Mystery pea family plant, Airlie Gardens, Wilmington, New Hanover County, NC, 8/5/09 Downy Milkpea (Galactia volubilis), Durham, NC, 9/6/19 Eastern Milkpea (Galactia regularis), Durham, NC, 9/6/19 Perennial Sand Bean or Pink Fuzzybean (Strophostyles umbellata), with the different flower colors (due to age) characteristic of this species.  Durham, NC, 9/13/11 American Wisteria (Wisteria frutescens), Duke Gardens, Durham, NC, 4/6/09 Dense Flowered Platycarpos (Lupinus microcarpus var. densiflorus), Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, CA, 5/31/19 Tall Tick-trefoil (Desmodium glabellum), part of coastal plain exhibit, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 9/13/19    

 

       
Birdfoot Trefoil or Birdfoot Deer-vetch (Lotus corniculatus), Ocracoke, Hyde County, NC, 5/11/09 Another Birdfoot Trefoil, Ocracoke, Hyde County, NC, 5/10/09 Silktree (Albizia julibrissin), Durham, NC, 6/8/09.  This is an introduced species. Sensitive Brier or Sensitive Plant (Mimosa microphylla), NC Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 7/17/09 The USDA calls this a "rattlebox" (Sesbania punicea). It's a kind of locust tree, a member of the pea family (Fabaceae) and is native to South America.  It's considered to be invasive and a noxious weed in Florida and California, but North Carolina's chilly winters keep it in check. Ocracoke, Hyde County, NC, 5/21/17 Wild Bush Bean (Macroptilium lathyroides), Fort Myers, Lee County, FL, 2/21/19        

 

       
Small-headed Clover (Trifolium microcephalum), Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, CA, 5/31/19 Rabbit's Foot Clover (Trifolium arvense), Flat River Waterfowl Impoundment, Durham County, NC, 5/22/15 Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) blossom, like all clover blossoms, a composite of typical legume family (Fabaceae) flowers.  Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 5/27/11 Red Clover (Trifolium pratense), Southern Village, Chapel Hill, Orange County, NC, 5/7/09 Crimson Clover (Trifolium incarnatum), North Carolina Museum of Art nature trail, 4/23/09 Low Hop Clover (Trifolium campestre), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 5/1/09 White clover (Trifolium repens, var. repens), Durham, NC, 4/3/09 Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis), NC Zoo, Asheboro, NC, 6/21/09        

 

 
Sericea Lespedeza  or Chinese Lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata), Durham, NC, 8/2/10.  An introduced plant which is listed as a "noxious weed" in 46 states. Sericea Lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata). Durham, NC, 8/23/19 Sericea lespedeza or Chinese Lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 6/29/09. Lespedeza genus flowers, American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 9/1/09 Lespedeza genus, American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 9/1/09 Crown Vetch (Securigera varia), an introduced plant, Boone Greenway, Watauga County, NC, 7/7/11 Showy Rattlebox (Crotalaria spectabilis), Greenville, NC, 11/10/10 Purple Prairie Clover (Dalea purpurea), Port Aransas Nature Preserve East, Nueces County, TX  2/25/14 Pea family plant: very common, might be Summer Lupine (Lupinus formosus), Larkspur, Marin County, CA, 6/1/19  

         
Showy Partridge Pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC,  7/26/09 Wild Sensitive Plant (Chamaecrista nictitans), Durham, NC, 8/25/19 Kudzu (Pueraria montana) infloresence, the only one seen Kudzu flower (Pueraria montana), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 8/21/09 Hog Peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata), Penny's Bend Nature Preserve, Durham, NC, 8/23/09 Naked Tick Trefoil (Desmodium nudiflorum) flowers, seen on the woodland trail (not part of the official exhibit) at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 6/27/11 American Groundnut (Apios americana), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/16/15          

Beech (Fagaceae) family, Rosanae superorder

       
Amedium Turkey Oak (Quercus laevis), Carolina Beach State Park, New Hanover County, NC, 12/4/12 White Oak (Quercus alba), Durham, NC, 4/15/09, fallen from tree        

Geraniaceae family, Rosanae superorder

 
Carolina Cranesbill (Geranium carolinianum), Durham, NC, 4/9/09 Carolina Cranesbill (Geranium carolinianum), Durham, NC, 4/29/19 Wild Geranium or Spotted Geranium (Geranium maculatum). North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 4/10/09 Dove's Foot Geranium (Geranium molle), Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, CA, 5/31/19 Redstem Filaree (Erodium cicutarium), Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, CA, 5/31/19  

Hydrangeceae family, Rosanae superorder

         
Oakleaf Hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), Durham, NC, 5/19/19          

Horse Chestnut (Hippocastanaceae) family, Rosanae superorder

     
Yellow Buckeye (Aesculus flava), Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 3/31/09 Red Buckeye (Aesculus pavia), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 4/10/09      

Walnut (Juglandaceae) family, Rosanae superorder

       
Pignut Hickory (Carya glabra), Durham, NC, 4/20/09        

Linaceae family, Rosanae superorder

Texas Flax (Linum hudsonioides), Port Aransas Nature Preserve at Charlie's Pasture, Nueces County, TX 2/21/14

Loosestrife (Lythraceae) family, Rosanae superorder

 
Swamp Loosestrife (Decodon verticillatus), Goose Creek State Park, Beaufort County, NC, 7/13/18 Valley Redstem or Scarlet Tooth-cap (Ammannia coccinea): flowers, fruit and buds, Jordan Lake gameland, Chatham County, NC, 10/15/11 Blooming Valley Redstem or Scarlet Tooth-cap (Ammannia coccinea): flowers, fruit and buds, Jordan Lake gameland, Chatham County, NC, 10/28/17  

Melastomataceae family, Rosanae superorder

       
Maryland Meadow Beauty (Rhexia mariana), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 7/26/09 Virginia Meadow Beauty (Rhexia virginica), NC Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 9/6/09        

Evening Primrose (Onagraceae) family, Rosanae superorder

     
Beach Suncup (Camissoniopsis cheiranthifolia), Abbott's Lagoon, Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, NC, 5/1/17 Sundrops (Oenothera fruticosa), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 5/6/19 Sundrops (Oenothera fruticosa), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 5/11/12 Common Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis), Ocracoke, 5/11/09.  Taken at 8:24 am, DST.      

Showy Primrose or Pinklady (Oenothera speciosa), Durham, NC, 6/1/11 Seedbox (Ludwigia alternifolia, Onagraceae family), Durham, NC, 6/26/09 Beach Evening Primrose (Oenotheria drummondii), Mustang Island State Park, Nueces County, TX, 2/22/14  Elegant Clarkia (Clarkia unguiculata), Larkspur, Marin County, CA, 6/3/19

 

Wood Sorrel (Oxalidaceae) family, Rosidae subclass

   
Common Yellow Wood-Sorrel (Oxalis stricta), Durham, NC, 5/3/19 Pink Wood-Sorrel (Oxalis debilis), South Tar River Greenway, Greenville, Pitt County, NC, 1/6/19.  This is an introduced species. Pink Wood-Sorrel (Oxalis debilis), Old Salem, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, NC, 4/27/19 Violet Wood-Sorrel (Oxalis violacea), Eno River State Park (Cole Mill Rd.), Durham/Orange County, NC 4/14/16 Violet Wood-Sorrel (Oxalis violacea), Old Salem, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, NC, 4/27/19      

Passion Flower (Passifloraceae) family, Rosanae superorder

 
Purple Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), one of about 10 at the Flat River Impoundment, Durham County, NC, 8/15/10 Purple Passionflower, Fort Macon State Park, Carteret County, NC, 7/21/08.  These are the preferred larval plants of Zebra Heliconian butterflies. Purple Passionflower, coastal South Carolina.  Photo taken by David L. Green, who describes beekeeping at his website, http://www.pollinator.com  


Passion Vine with opening flower.  One of a few remaining after a large field was mowed.  Johnston Mill Nature Preserve, Orange County, NC, 7/3/09

Milkwort (Polygalaceae) family, Rosanae superorder

         
Maryland Milkwort (Polygala mariana), Occoneechee Mountain Natural Area, Orange County, NC, 10/29/09 Showy Milkwort (Polygala grandiflora), South Lido Park, Sarasota, FL, 4/1/12          

Buckthorn (Rhamnaceae) family, Rosanae superorder

       
Carolina Buckthorn (Frangula caroliniana), North Carolina Botanical Garden, Orange County, NC, 4/10/09 Hairy Ceanothus (Ceanothus oliganthus), Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, CA, 5/31/19        

Rose (Rosaceae) family, Rosanae superorder

 
Sulfur Cinquefoil (Potentilla recta), American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 5/19/09 Dwarf Cinquefoil (Potentilla canadensis), Durham, NC, 4/8/09 Common Cinquefoil (Potentilla simplex), Durham, NC, 4/25/19 Indian Strawberry or Mock Strawberry (Duchesnea indica) flower, Durham, NC, 4/3/09 Mock Strawberry or Indian Strawberry (Duchesnea indica) fruit, Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange Bounty, NC, 5/11/12

 

       
Wild Strawberry (Fragaria virginiana), Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 4/12/09   American Plum (Prunus americana) flowers, Durham, NC, 3/27/19 Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), American Tobacco Trail (miles 4-6), Durham, NC, 4/13/09 Elmleaf Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius), Larkspur, Marin County, CA, 5/30/19      

 

Sawtooth Blackberry (Rubus argutus), American Tobacco Trail (miles 4-6), Durham, NC, 4/13/09 Common Serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea), Montreat, Buncombe County, NC, 4/29/14 Purple-flowering Raspberry (Rubus odoratus), with flower. Mt. Jefferson State Park, Ashe County, NC, 8/13/09 Purple-flowering Raspberry (Rubus odoratus), with fruit. Mt. Jefferson State Park, Ashe County, NC, 8/13/09 Grayleaf Raspberry (Rubus idaeus, subspecies strigosus) fruit

 
Swamp Rose (Rosa palustris), appeared in Siler's Bog in the Mason Farm Biological Reserve, Orange County, NC, 6/25/09 Swamp Rose (Rosa palustris), Flat River Impoundment, Durham County, NC, 6/3/11.  Bowman's Root or Mountain Indian-physic (Gillenia trifoliata), Moses Cone Memorial Park, Watauga County, NC, 6/6/17 Red Tip or Fraser's Photinia (Photinia x fraseri), Durham, NC, 4/25/19.  Not a true wildflower, but a cultivar. Japanese Meadowsweet (Spiraea japonica), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 6/15/15.  An introduced species.  

 

Rose Spirea (Spiraea douglasii), rural Oregon, 7/29/19. Copyright © 2019 by Rob Patterson Steeplebush (Spiraea tomentosa), Boone, Watauga County, NC, 8/11/19 Swamp Agrimony (Agrimonia parviflora), Durham, NC, 8/23/19 Swamp Agrimony (Agrimonia parviflora), Durham, NC, 8/25/19

Soapberry (Sapindaceae) family, Rosanae superorder

 
Balloonvine (Cardiospermum halicacabum), Pitt County Arboretum, Greenville, NC, 9/26/14.  

Nasturtium (Tropaeoleaceae) family, Rosanae superorder

Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus), Stinson Beach, Marin County, CA, 9/5/13. An introduced plant, naturalized in this location.

Nettles (Urticaceae) family, Rosanae superorder

         
Smallspike False Nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica), Durham, NC, 9/22/19.  ID thanks to Su Kim. Close-up of same Smallspike False Nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica), Durham, NC, 9/22/19          

Grape (Vitaceae) family, Rosanae superorder

     
Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) flowers and buds, American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 6/29/09 Scuppernong grape (Vitis rotundifolia) flowers, Durham, NC, 6/8/09 Green Scuppernong (Vitis rotundifolia) fruit, Durham, NC, 7/6/09.  A variety of muscadine grape. Muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) fruit, Durham, NC, 7/26/09, not Scuppernongs. Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia) fruit, Durham, NC, 8/21/10 Ripe muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia). American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 9/1/09.  Not Scuppernongs.      


Porcelainberry (Ampelopsis brevipedunculata), an introduced plant, American Tobacco Trail, Durham, NC, 8/25/09.  The leaves have a markedly different shape from the round-leaved Vitis genus members. This is listed as invasive in 12 states, but not in North Carolina: National Park Service's Porcelainberry Page.

Santalanae superorder

Mistletoe (Santalaceae) family, Santalanae superorder

Southern Mistletoe (Phoradendron leucarpum), the only mistletoe species found in North Carolina. Seen in Washington, Beaufort County, NC, 3/11/12.

 

Copyright 2005-2019 ©  Dorothy E. Pugh.  All rights reserved.

References

Bowers N, Bowers R and Tekiela S (2008) Wildflowers of the Carolinas. Cambridge, MN: Adventure Publications

Cotterman L, Waitt D, and Weakley (2019) Wildflowers of the Atlantic Southeast. Portland, OR:Timber Press

Horn D, Cathcart T, Hemmerly TE, and Duhl D (2005) Auburn, WA:Lone Pine Publishing

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (http://www.itis.gov)

Justice W. Bell CR and Lindsey AH (2005) Wild Flowers of North Carolina, 2nd ed.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Newcomb L (1977) Newcomb's Wildflower Guide.  NY:Little, Brown & Co.

Haines E (2012) Real-time Rendering: Wildflower Identification http://www.realtimerendering.com/flowers/flowers.html

Munz PA, eds. Lake D and Faber PM (2004) Introduction to California Wildflowers. Berkeley and Los Angeles:University of California Press

the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden (2019) The Plant List. Retrieved 8 July 2019 from http://www.theplantlist.org/

Tennessee Invasive Plant Council (2019) Allium Vineale.  Retrieved 4 Jul 2019 at http://www.tnipc.org/invasive-plants/plant-details/?id=16

USDA, NRCS. 2009. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 25 June 2019). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture/Research & Extension (2019) Weeds of Arkansas.  Retrieved 7 Jul 2019 from https://www.uaex.edu/publications/pdf/MP169.pdf